Subordinating Conjunctions in English! Learn the definition, useful rules and subordinating conjunctions list with ESL printable infographics.
What are subordinating conjunctions?
These conjunctions are used to join an independent and complete clause with a dependent clause that relies on the main clause for meaning and relevance. The dependent clause cannot exist on its own as a sentence and often does not make sense without the main clause.
The subordinating conjunction always comes before the dependent clause but the dependent clause itself can be placed either ahead of or following the independent clause.
- Since they had misbehaved, the boys were given one week suspensions from school.
Here, we see the dependent clause is ‘they had misbehaved’ which is not a valid sentence by itself.
The independent main clause is ‘the boys were given one week suspensions from school’.
They are joined by the subordinating conjunction ‘since’.
- He was fond of playing basketball because it was his father’s favourite game.
In this sentence, because is the subordinating conjunction as it introduces the dependent clause ‘it was his father’s favourite game’.
The main clause in this sentence is ‘he was fond of playing basketball’ as it is the sentence which can be said independently and still be grammatically correct.
Other subordinating conjunctions are – Although, As, Before, Once, Though, Until, Whether, etc.
Subordinating Conjunctions List
There are many subordinating conjunctions. This is the most commonly used subordinating conjunctions list in English.
|After||Soon after moving to London, she got a new job.|
|Although||He decided to go, although I begged him not to.|
|As||You can go first as you’re the oldest.|
|As soon as||As soon as I saw her, I knew there was something wrong.|
|Because||We can’t go to Julia’s party because we’re going away that weekend.|
|Before||You should always wash your hands before meals.|
|By the time||I thought you’d be done by this time.|
|Even if||Even if you apologize, she still may not forgive you.|
|Even though||Even though he left school at 16, he still managed to become prime minister.|
|If||If she hadn’t called, I wouldn’t have known.|
|In case||Bring a map in case you get lost.|
|Now that||Now that I live only a few blocks from work, I walk to work and enjoy it.|
|Once||Once I’ve found somewhere to live I’ll send you my address.|
|Since||Since we’ve got a few minutes to wait for the train, let’s have a cup of coffee.|
|So that||I am saving money so that I can buy a new car.|
|Than||My brother’s older than you.|
|Unless||You can’t get a job unless you have experience.|
|Until||I was up until three o’clock trying to get it finished!|
|When||I don’t suppose I can really call myself a vegetarian when I eat fish.|
|Whenever||I’m embarrassed whenever I think about it.|
|Whether or not||It remains to be seen whether or not this idea can be put into practice.|
|While||I read it while you were drying your hair.|
|Why||She’ll ask why you don’t have your homework.|
|As long as||You can have a dog as long as you promise to take care of it.|
|In order that||In order that you can sign the form, please print it out and mail it to this address.|
Table: List of Subordinating Conjunctions
Learn more with a big list of transition words and phrases in English.
Subordinating Conjunctions | Infographics
Subordinating Conjunctions List Image 1
Subordinating Conjunctions List in English | Image 2